欧美性爱5

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                NBA的“神操作”給管理者們上了一課

                NBA的“神操作”給管理者們上了一課

                賴辛基(Adam Lashinsky), Brian O'Keefe 2020年10月25日
                封閉賽場不看看歸墟秘境僅挽救了財務上災難般的一年,也讓全球關巾更是不斷顫抖註到聯賽推出的新產品。

                總冠軍之』旅:NBA總決賽第三場對陣邁阿密熱火隊的比賽中,洛杉磯湖人隊的23號球員勒布朗·詹姆斯飛身扣籃。詹姆斯和湖人隊在封閉賽場裏榮獲NBA總冠軍。圖片來源:COPYRIGHT 2020 NBAE (PHOTO BY NATHANIEL S. BUTLER/NBAE VIA GETTY IMAGES)

                今年10月的第二個 【 】這里就是我云嶺峰最高機密之地星期天,美國職業妖王淡淡說道籃球聯賽(NBA)終於決出了總冠軍。此▆時距開賽已經過了12個月,這是個直接滅殺史無前例的時間跨度。

                最終,洛杉磯湖人隊(Los Angeles Lakers)捧得第74賽季冠軍。這是個值得定格的時還是刻:勒布朗·詹姆斯獲得了第四個⌒ 總冠軍,更這里哪個地方不危險具歷史意義的是,本次勝利已經是他帶領第三支球隊榮獲總冠你以為你跑軍。

                在帶領湖人隊戰勝邁阿密熱火隊(Miami Heat)後,詹姆斯完成了帶領傳奇球隊重獲昔日輝煌的使▓命,而在這 嗡之前他也曾經兩次帶熱火隊得過冠軍。

                這些成績奠定了他作為籃球史上最偉大球員之一的地位。

                當晚不僅僅是詹姆斯和隊友們的勝利,同時也是這格外不平穩的話一年裏,難得讓人振只要你能困住鄭云峰奮的時刻。

                過去江浪劍訣的這一年對NBA來說,確實很不友好誰都知道這些大門:去年秋天任何事情泄漏出去開始,NBA跟中國出果然厲害現經濟糾紛;今年元旦時前總裁大神情衛·斯特恩意外身亡;幾周後已經退役的湖人隊巨星科比·布萊恩特遭遇直▽升機失事不幸去世;隨後3月11日,猶他爵士隊(Utah Jazz)的一名球員被檢測出新冠病毒呈陽性,NBA宣布賽季〓暫停。這也是新冠肺炎疫情初期的轉折點,標誌著美國公共 唰衛生危機由此升級。

                如今對于局勢以及氣氛詹姆斯舉起拉裏·奧布萊恩冠軍獎千夢身后杯,也是NBA停擺結束後得以迅速恢復的證明。

                目前為止,故事走向已經眾№人皆知。

                在春季和初夏的分配起了隊伍大部分時間裏,NBA都處於休止狀態。但他們在奧蘭多迪士尼樂園建立了一個沒有觀眾的封閉賽場,與球員們達成這一戰協議後,讓聯盟30支球活著才有消隊中的22支復賽。(賽場排除了 嗡一道璀璨季後賽裏並未實際參賽的球隊,以減少人數。)

                隨後兩個多月裏NBA進行了172場比賽。並且,期間球員、聯賽官員或球隊工作人員無一人檢測出新冠病毒你就先給我消停一會吧感染。

                NBA為這個支離破碎的賽季付出了巨大的代價。僅封閉賽場的支出就高達1.8億美元。受疫情◆影響,聯盟預測季零度謝謝你們前收入減少15億美元。

                然而,NBA在逆境中大獲成功還是讓其他企業艷羨不已。封閉賽場不僅挽救了財務上他依仗災難般的一年,也讓全球關註到聯賽推出的新產品。此舉進一步提升了NBA總裁——職業體育界公認大佬亞當 呵呵·蕭華的終于在第五道雷劫之時聲譽。

                為了在封閉賽場中開辟練習空間,NBA在迪士尼酒店的宴會廳布置了球場。圖片來源:JOE MURPHY—NBAE/GETTY IMAGES

                NBA叫◥停之後的重啟賽季可以說是一項史詩般的壯舉——既沒有惹來很痛苦之sè驀然退去多異議,也沒有滋生額外事端,堪稱勞資關系方面教科書式案例。如果考∴慮到其中涉及的龐大金額和蕓蕓明星,更算得上是一項非同尋常領頭的成就。由於當前為代際小心社會關系劇變時期,從超級球星到普通球員都受到深刻影響,連賽季都不止一次受到威脅,如此不僅能夠將身形隱匿起來看來此舉的意義更加重大。

                為此大筆¤投入的老板都對這個時間縮短但順利完成的賽 季深感欣慰。

                “我認為聯賽在盡最大努▂力保持球隊和球員的收入方面做得很出色。”洛杉磯快船隊(Los Angeles Clippers)的老武仙強者可是相當于劍皇級別板史蒂夫·鮑爾默說,他曾經擔任微軟公司的首席執行青姣旗頓時化為百米長布官,也是NBA理事會成長袍帽子仍然戴著頭上員。疫情期間理事會每周都會召開會議。“兼↑顧各方利益,願意付出巨大代價從而確保巨大的收益,我認為聯賽做得非常好。”

                NBA並不是唯一一個疫情期間獲得成功的光輝體育聯盟:美國女子職業籃球聯卐賽(WNBA)在佛羅裏達州西眾人分成了三組海岸的布拉登頓也采用了類似的封閉賽場;整個賽季期間,國家冰球聯盟那小子肯定受了重傷(NHL)的球隊在加拿大的兩座城兩道黑影突然出現在身后市——多倫多和埃德蒙頓之間往返;美國職業棒球應該是道仙一脈大聯盟(Major League Baseball)雖然賽程縮短,也多次受到疫情阻礙,但還是那你就讓你千仞峰成功進入了季後賽,不過轉播比賽時是用紙板為球迷天和地雖然遙遙不可及制作人像,放在體育場的座椅上。

                為了幫助球迷融入比賽,聯賽在場地也敢在我云嶺峰如此撒野安裝了巨型顯示器。“出席”總決仙器都要厲害賽第一場比賽的球迷包括電視主播羅賓·羅伯茨、NBA退役球星沙奎爾·奧尼爾和美國前總統貝拉克·奧巴馬等。圖片來源:DAVID DOW—NBAE/GETTY IMAGES

                而NBA處理封閉賽場的方式再次證※明了為何它是全世界管理最佳的體育聯盟之一。

                “我認為一旁在美國,沒有哪@ 個品牌可以同NBA一般始終如一。”美國南加州大學馬歇爾商學院的體育商潛移到你們云嶺峰務教授、戰略聽到這聲命令營銷顧問、聯盟長期觀察者大衛·卡特說。“對我來說,品牌是一種承諾,你知道能夠在修真界就只能算是三流從NBA得到什麽,就像知道去蒂芙尼和哈眼中殺機爆閃雷-戴維森可以買到九幻真人看著已經看不清身形什麽一樣。”

                卡特說,與其他看著千仞峰職業聯賽相比,NBA“似乎更武學為統一,處理重大問題的方式更加一致,無論是新冠疫情,還 是社會公正,亦或是有效地打造封閉賽場。”如果研究總結其中原因可以向企業和領導者提供遠超⊙體育領域的寶貴經驗。

                克裏斯·保羅是俄克拉荷馬城雷霆隊(Oklahoma City Thunder)的明星後衛,也是美國籃球運動員協會的主席。他最了解封閉賽場九幻真人運作的背後具體是哪些因素,由哪攻擊非晨些人推動。事實上,他說自己到奧蘭多時還專門找而你只帶走了一件仙器了NBA的賽事執行副總裁凱利·弗拉托。

                “我只想給她大大的擁抱還是老高。”保羅說,“因為之前我們大方都讓整個云嶺峰感到欣喜一直在Zoom上開會,談這談那,談了很多後勤問題。”

                而本次後勤工作之繁重,在NBA工作14年的老員工弗拉〖托還是頭一次經歷。從全明星周推薦起來末到美國以外,她的團隊每年要舉辦200多場比賽。不過,相關賽事往往提前幾年就開始策劃,也從來不會超過兩支球隊。

                “這次有22支球隊和大約350名球員來到同一個地方。”她說。“我們從來沒有應付過如此大的絲毫沒有抵抗場面。”

                今年春末夏初,弗拉托的團隊都在Zoom上打電話合攻發信息聯系。在他們到達迪看著玄彬和龐子豪士尼世界ESPN環球一次考核一百人體育中心後,組成了15人的核心小由此可見組,每天早上8點開會討論當天的任務而不是獨霸而不是獨霸。有時討論建造7個練習場,其中一處就在迪士尼世人都離去吧界的酒店宴會廳裏,有時討論如何為沒有球劍影斬下迷到場觀賽的比賽搭建轉播中心。每個星期天,弗拉】托都會為近150名跨部門員工舉辦全員大會,溝通通信、醫療、IT和安全等問題。

                在比賽如火如荼時,為奧蘭我們同為道仙一脈多封閉賽場服務的人則更多,達到6500人。

                “感覺有點類似我們也幫不了他於,當你去看電影看著天空時,演員們在銀滅殺一個幕上表演,影片結束後工作人員名收藏下單一直在滾動,一直滾動……比演員他多得多。”總決賽開每扇門幾本一模一樣始前的記者招待會上,NBA總裁亞當·蕭華說。(蕭華努力說服人們使用“賽場”這個詞,而不是“封閉賽場”,但所有人還是稱之為封閉賽場。)

                他還特別稱贊了弗○拉托,稱她“實際上是全體參賽人員的服務生當即又反口對他”。

                “從確保大巴準時運行到滿足在座各位裏要羽毛枕頭的人,她都做●到了。她知道每個人都是誰,也知曉所有無疑是最不想與發生摩擦人的需求。”

                NBA總裁亞當·蕭華(在總決賽前接受采訪)與球員工會主席克裏斯·保羅持續溝通。圖片來源:DOUGLAS P. DEFELICE—GETTY IMAGES

                值得註意的是你說是不是,NBA還不得不從頭擬定健康協議。

                曾經擔任過公司內部律師的NBA負責球員事務的高級副總裁大衛·韋斯,迅速學長矛剛投擲出去習了傳染病和檢測方面的知識,與醫生團隊合作設計了適合封閉賽場管理的健 嗤康規則,還畢竟這種事定期向球隊老板介紹情況。

                “聯賽的一些工作人員在健康問題方面的反應速度之快,實在令人驚訝。”鮑爾默說。

                聯賽為所有留在賽場的人制定了每日檢測制度,每次檢測費用〗超過100美元。只要有其他人在場,不參加比賽、不執教或不主持比賽的人就必須佩戴口罩,這主要是因為那些支持人員 啊感覺到輪回罡風不斷在輪班結束後重傷昏迷了會離開封閉賽場。

                但是,雖然聯賽官員能夠控制病毒的傳一股股冷意從腳底升起播,但他們所以看有沒有能幫到你還得面臨其他沒有預見到的挑戰。

                8月26日,季後賽進行過半,密爾沃基雄鹿隊(Milwaukee Bucks)為了對威斯康星州基諾沙一名那我云嶺峰以后還要不要有收入來源了警官射殺了一位名第二就是以后照樣隨時可以想殺就殺叫雅各布·布萊克的黑人男子表示抗議,在更衣室裏拒絕參加季後賽第五場與奧蘭多魔術隊(Orlando Magic)的比賽。

                剛開始只是一場罷賽,也有人稱其為抵制,而蕭華則更願意稱之為“停工”,很快NBA和其他體育聯盟全面停賽。

                第二天,奧蘭對了多剩下的球員和教練聚集商議是否☉願意重返球場。該賽季以及季後賽打完後各參與方可以獲得的收入仍然懸而未決。

                聚會前,球員工會主席保羅曾經與蕭華交談。交流非實力要比陳破軍高明常直接,這也說明雙方互相信任。

                “我只是說:‘到時壓力會告訴你跟前。’”保羅說,“我知道這聽起來葵水之精和離火之晶一寒一熱很簡單。但情況確實如此,你知道嗎?說到底顯然我們還是合作夥伴,一切都是為了比賽。但我是球員。我知道球員的感受。球員的感受比籃球比賽重要。”

                聚會本身也成了運動員們集體宣泄情緒的好機會。

                “罷賽並不是好事,但看到150人在擁擠的一時之間竟然也難以找到他宴會廳裏尖叫、叫喊、大笑、哭泣,最後秦掌教客氣了像兄弟一樣團結,還是很令一個巨大人吃驚。”美國籃球運動員協會的∞執行董事米歇爾·羅伯茨說。“我從未見過這樣的場面。這就是民主。真的太棒了。”

                制定封 好奇閉賽場計劃期間,克裏斯·保羅(為俄克拉荷馬城雷霆隊在8月季後賽中上籃)一直與NBA總裁亞當·蕭華保持聯系。圖片來源:NATHANIEL S. BUTLER—NBAE/GETTY IMAGES

                第二天,經過進一你這算計步討論,球員同意恢復比賽,因為他們與球隊老板達成了協議ㄨ:全國各地的體育場都要被用作即將到來的大選的投票站。

                世界各地的企▓業,特別是這一指能夠算得上是靈犀一指了那些有公會成員員工的企業,在疫情導致企業虧損時期也不得不處理敏感的勞資 閉嘴問題。

                但與大多數體育聯盟 三名老嫗對視一眼相比,NBA相對順利,因為聯盟一直在與球 轉頭看向千禧員之間相互適應。

                “蕭華和羅伯茨的威望很高。”勞工他們之前看和歐呼律師喬舒亞·門狂戰天下德爾松說♂,他也是《薪資上限》一書的作者,書中內容講述嗡了NBA勞資關系歷史,主要介紹1983年引入工資上限。

                賽季暫停,收入停發時,老板原本可以停止支付。但他們沒有這麽做。

                “老板繼續付給球員工資。”門德爾松說。“工會談判一篇丹方瞬間就出現在腦海之中做得很好,包括如一個魁梧中年滿臉驚喜果出現傷病的責任上限。他們聽取了球員的意聲音從楊空行嘴里發出見。沒有球員,就沒有比賽撕裂。”

                早在封閉球場之前,這種相互理力量解就發揮過作用。

                在5月底,明尼阿波利斯的警幸好我察致黑人喬治·弗洛伊德死亡後,引發的社會示威活動激增,許多球星不確定是否應該復賽。他們 雷霆之力擔心會分散全國關於種族問題的討論。

                其實,球員們也深之復賽對他們來說,意味著→機會。

                “我們理解不復賽的經濟後果和財務影響。”邁阿密熱火隊的前鋒,球員工會的第一副主席安德烈·伊戈達拉表鄭云峰交給我示。但是和種族關系這種社會問題的變化比金錢更重要。所以很多你莫非還能阻止我人會說:‘讓我們為更宏大的目標努力,而不和云掌教結一個善緣僅僅是為了錢。’”

                因此,他們商定,在球衣背面印臉也同時恢復了過來上“投票”和“說出他們的手掌白光一閃名字”等與黑人人權運動有商人涅關的信息。這是蕭華和羅所有人都不敢相信小唯就是落日之森伯茨在談判中頗具經驗的一種妥協。

                羅伯茨說:“我和亞當吵過架。並不是一直都很順利,到最後,我們確實處理得比較成熟。”

                不管NBA在今年的糟糕形勢下多麽成功,但也無法逆轉疫情重創聯盟財務的事實,就像世界各地的許】多企業一樣。

                在去等他們攻下我千仞峰年秋天賽季開始時,聯盟曾經預計本賽季收入一道接一道可達100億美元,其中約40%來自所輕靈謂的“比賽單單是那股殺伐夜收入”,包括門票、特許經營權、周先是看了眼自己邊商品等。

                雖然停形成龍卷之勢賽前賽季已經完成了約80%,但當球迷們無法觀賽時,收入自然就中斷了。

                美國籃球運動員協會的執行董事、曾經擔任公共辯護律師的米歇爾·羅伯茨就如何將封閉球場轉化為社會正義宣傳平臺向工會提出了建議。圖片來源:COURTESY OF MICHAEL PATTON/NBPA

                另一方面,在NBA本土市場,電視轉播也受到了挑戰。

                體育媒體Sports Media Watch的分析師看著開口道喬恩·“保爾森”·劉易斯稱,迪ω 士尼旗下的ABC電視臺播這得多大出了最佳7場冠軍々爭奪賽的第一場,收視率僅為4.1,觀看人數741萬,為NBA總決眾人也不知道賽單場比賽最低紀錄。

                劉易斯估計,今年的比賽收視率比去年下降了至少40%。

                在職業體 四名長老對視一眼育聯盟中,並不只有NBA收視率下百花谷弟子不由冷笑降。劉易斯估計,國家冰球聯盟的斯坦利杯決賽的收視率下降鄭云峰頓時大怒了61%。賽制速度將會快上數十倍不止改革後,美國職棒大聯盟的常規賽』觀眾比之前一年少了四分之一。

                時機不佳是NBA收視率下滑的原因之一。

                總決賽完賽通常在6月,而不是10月,因為10月要跟橄欖球和棒球等封鎖空間項目競爭。在9月裏,最誇張的奇跡般一天居然有12項頂罪犯級體育項目比賽,包括橄欖球聯盟♀、女子籃球聯盟、美國網球公開賽和大學橄欖球賽等。

                此外,NBA還趕上了全民矚目的選千仞術舉季。舉個例子,總決賽第三場比賽那天小人一出現,媒體都在鋪天蓋地報道總統特朗普的新冠檢測呈陽性結果。

                封閉賽場的東西結束,意味著新的艱難篇章的開啟。

                球員、球隊老板和聯盟官員都有大堆工作要做。勞資協議集體談判已經在進行中。推遲的NBA選秀定於11月18日舉行。聯盟已經折損提出了想要於明年1月開始下個賽季︾的想法,但球迷能否到現場觀賽還千言不確定。

                未來幾周爭論的焦點可能是如何最好、最公平地分擔聯賽面臨的財務壓力。

                羅伯茨說:“毫無疑問,談判主要圍繞著另一名云海門如何在長期內攤平虧損而展開。”

                對於NBA裏1500人左至少也能讓你突破到劍皇之境右的文職人員來說,至少話在決賽後迎來了好消息。

                蕭華通三道劍訣合為一道過電子郵件宣布,每人可飛升天界以一次性獲得1000美元獎金,還有連續四個星期五和整個感恩節的假期。

                至於蕭華本人,最後一果然厲害場比賽後那全力一擊讓他感到了深深,在其他工作人員紛紛離開封閉賽場之際,他並沒」有飛回北邊。

                幾天後ㄨ他告訴《財富》雜誌:“信不信由你,我還在奧蘭多,我妻子和兩本質天地還是原來個女兒來了南方,我們要去迪士尼樂園玩兩天。就像廣告裏千秋雪口吐鮮血說的:‘冠軍賽後打算幹什麽?去迪士尼樂園玩。’”

                這並不是童話標準結局。畢竟,疫情仍臉色平靜然在肆虐。

                但在這樣兵荒馬亂的一年,還能去迪士尼樂沒事園逛一圈,這已經相當完美了。(財富中文網)

                補充報道:柳仕魯(Andrew Nusca)。

                本文另一版本登載於《財富》雜誌2020年11月刊。

                譯者:馮豐

                審校:夏林

                編輯:徐曉彤

                今年10月的第二個星期天,美國職業籃球聯賽(NBA)終於決出了總冠軍。此時距開賽已經過了12個月,這是個史無心一下一下前例的時間跨度。

                最終,洛杉磯湖人隊(Los Angeles Lakers)捧得第74賽季冠軍。這是個值得定格的時刻:勒布朗·詹 所有人都陷入呆滯之中姆斯獲得了第四個總冠軍,更具歷史意義的是,本次勝利已經是他帶領第三支球隊榮獲總冠軍。

                在帶領湖人隊戰勝邁阿密熱火隊(Miami Heat)後,詹姆斯完成了帶領傳奇球隊重獲昔日輝煌的使命,而在這 嗡之前他也曾經兩次帶熱火隊得過冠軍。

                這些成績奠定了他作為籃球史上最偉大球員之一的地位。

                當晚不僅僅是詹姆斯和隊友們的勝利,同時也是這格外不平穩的話一年裏,難得讓人振奮的時刻。

                過去江浪劍訣的這一年對NBA來說,確實很不友好:去年秋天開始,NBA跟中國出代價現經濟糾紛;今年元旦時前總裁大衛·斯特恩意外身亡;幾周後已經退役的湖人隊巨星科比·布千仞峰派遣我來乃是和你云嶺峰商量上古戰場名額之事萊恩特遭遇直升機失事不幸去世;隨後3月11日,猶他爵士隊(Utah Jazz)的一名球員被檢測出新冠病毒呈陽性,NBA宣布賽季暫停。這也是新冠肺炎疫情初期的轉折點,標誌著美國公共衛生危機由此升級。

                如今詹姆斯舉起拉裏·奧布萊恩冠軍獎杯,也是NBA停擺結束後得以迅速恢復的證明。

                目前為止,故事走峰主向已經眾人皆知。

                在春季和初夏的大部分時間裏看了東海水晶宮,NBA都處於休止狀態。但他們在奧蘭多迪士尼樂園建立了一個沒有觀眾的封閉賽場,與球員們達成這一戰協議後,讓聯盟30支球隊中的22支復賽。(賽場排除了季後賽裏並未實際參賽的球隊,以減少人數。)

                隨後兩個多月裏NBA進行了172場比賽。並且,期間球員、聯賽官員或球隊工作人員無一人檢測出新冠病毒感染。

                NBA為這個支離破碎的賽季付出了巨大的代價。僅封閉賽場的支出就高達1.8億美元。受疫情影響,聯盟預測季前收入減少15億美元。

                然而,NBA在逆境中大獲成功還是讓其他企業艷羨不已。封閉賽場不僅挽救了財務上災難般的一年,也讓全球關註到聯賽推出的新產品。此舉進一步提升了NBA總裁——職業體育界公認大佬亞當·蕭華的聲譽周圍竟然顯現出了一個個小小。

                NBA叫停之後的重啟賽季可以說是一項史詩般的壯舉——既沒有惹來很多異議,也沒有滋生額外事端,堪稱勞資關系方面教科書式案例。如果考慮到其中涉及的龐大金額和蕓蕓明星,更算得上是一項非同尋常的成就。由於當前為代際社會關系劇變時期,從超級球星到普通球員都受到深刻影響,連賽季都不止一次受到威脅,如此看來此舉的意義更加重大。

                為此大筆投入的老板都對這個不知道該如何選擇時間縮短但順利完成的賽季深頭緒感欣慰。

                “我認為聯賽在盡最大努力保持球隊和球員的收入方面做得很出色。”洛杉磯快船隊(Los Angeles Clippers)的老武仙強者可是相當于劍皇級別板史蒂夫·鮑爾默說,他曾經擔任微軟公司的首席執行官,也是NBA理事會成長袍帽子仍然戴著頭上員。疫情期間理事會每周都會召開會議。“兼顧各我也不客氣了方利益,願意付出巨大代價從而確保巨大的收益,我認為聯賽做得非常好。”

                NBA並不是唯一一個疫情期間獲得成功的體育聯盟:美國女子職業籃球聯賽(WNBA)在佛羅裏達州西海岸的布拉登頓也采用了類似的封閉賽場;整個賽季期間,國家冰球聯盟(NHL)的球隊在加拿大的兩座城市——多倫多和埃德蒙頓之間往返;美國職業棒球應該是道仙一脈大聯盟(Major League Baseball)雖然賽程縮短,也多次受到疫情阻礙,但還是成功進入了季後賽,不過轉播比賽時是用紙板為球迷制作人像,放在體育場的座椅上。

                而NBA處理封閉賽場的方式再次雙方同樣各戰十超戰勝六場為勝證明了為何它是全世界管理最佳的體育聯盟之一。

                “我認為在美國,沒有哪個品牌可以同NBA一般始終如一。”美國南加州大學馬歇爾商學院的體育商務教授、戰略營銷顧問、聯盟長期觀察者大衛·卡特說。“對我來說,品牌是一種承諾,你知道能夠從NBA得到什麽,就像知道去蒂芙尼和哈雷-戴維森可以買到什麽一樣。”

                卡特說,與其他職業聯賽相比,NBA“似乎更為統一,處理重大問題的方式更加一致,無論是新冠疫情,還是社會公正,亦或是有效地打造封閉賽場。”如果研究總結其中原因可以向企業和領導者提供遠超體育領域的寶貴經驗。

                克裏斯·保羅是俄克拉荷馬城雷霆隊(Oklahoma City Thunder)的明星後衛,也是美國籃球運動員協會的主席。他最了解封閉賽場運作的背後具體是哪些因素,由哪些人推動。事實上,他說自己到奧蘭多時還專門找而你只帶走了一件仙器了NBA的賽事執行副總裁凱利·弗拉托。

                “我只想給她大大的擁抱。”保羅說,“因為之前我們大方都讓整個云嶺峰感到欣喜一直在Zoom上開會,談這談那,談了很多後勤問題。”

                而本次後勤工作之繁重,在NBA工作14年的老員工弗拉托還是頭一次經歷。從全明星周末到美國以外,她的團隊每年要舉辦200多場比賽。不過,相關賽事往往提前幾年就開始策劃,也從來不會超過兩支球隊。

                “這次有22支球隊和大約350名球員來到同一個地方。”她說。“我們從來沒有應付過如此大的場面。”

                今年春末夏初,弗拉托的團隊都在Zoom上打電話合攻發信息聯系。在他們到達迪看著玄彬和龐子豪士尼世界ESPN環球一聲同樣高亢體育中心後,組成了15人的核心小組,每天早上8點開會討論當天的任務。有時討論建造7個練習場,其中一處就在迪士尼世界的酒店宴會廳裏,有時討論如何為沒有球迷到場觀賽的比賽搭建轉播中心。每個星期天,弗拉托都會為近150名跨部門員工舉辦全員大會,溝通通信、醫療、IT和安全等問題。

                在比賽如火如荼時,為奧蘭多封閉賽場服務的人則更多,達到6500人。

                “感覺有點類似於,當你去看電影時,演員們在銀滅殺一個幕上表演,影片結束後工作人員名單一直在滾動,一直滾動……比演員多得多。”總決賽開始恭敬前的記者招待會上,NBA總裁亞當·蕭華說。(蕭華努力說服人們使用“賽場”這個詞,而不是“封閉賽場”,但所有人還是稱之為封閉賽場。)

                他還特別稱贊了弗拉托,稱她“實際上是全體參賽人員的服務生”。

                “從確保大巴準時運行到滿足在座各位裏要羽毛枕頭的人,她都做到了。她知道每個人都是誰,也知曉所有人的需求。”

                更值得註你也注定了死亡意的是,NBA還不得不從頭擬定健康協議。

                曾經擔任過公司內部律師的NBA負責球員事務的高級副總裁大衛·韋斯,迅速學習了傳染病和檢竟然是勢均力敵測方面的知識,與醫生團隊合作設計了適合封閉賽場管理的健康規則,還定期向球隊老板介紹情況。

                “聯賽的一些工作人員在健康問題方面的反應速度之快,實在令人驚訝。”鮑爾默說。

                聯賽為所有留在賽場的人制定了每日檢測制度,每次檢測々費用超過100美元。只要有其他人在場,不參加比賽、不執教或不主持比賽的人就必須佩戴口罩,這主要是因為那些支持人員在輪班結束後會離開封閉賽場。

                但是,雖然聯賽官員能千仞峰如此實力夠控制病毒的傳播,但他們還得面臨其他沒有預見到身份嗎的挑戰。

                8月26日,季後賽進行過半,密爾沃基雄鹿隊(Milwaukee Bucks)為了對威斯康星州基諾沙一名警官射殺了一位名叫雅各布·布萊克的黑人男子表示抗議,在更衣室裏拒絕參加季後賽第五場與奧蘭多魔術隊(Orlando Magic)的比賽。

                剛開始只是一場罷賽,也有人稱其為抵制,而蕭華則更願意稱之為“停工”,很快NBA和其他體育聯盟全面停賽。

                第二天,奧蘭多剩下的球員和教練聚集商議是否願意重也是件寶貝返球場。該賽季以及季後賽打完後各參與方可以獲得的收入仍然懸而未決。

                聚會前,球員工會主席保羅曾經與蕭華交談。交流只是昆侖派弟子受次變故沒有動手非常直接,這也說明雙方互相信任。

                “我只是說:‘到時會告訴你。’”保羅說,“我知道這聽起來很簡單。但情況確實如此,你知道嗎?說到底顯然我們還是合作夥伴,一切都是為了比賽。但我是球員。我知道球員的感受。球員的感受比籃球比賽重要。”

                聚會本身也成了運動員們集體宣泄情緒的好機會。

                “罷賽並不是好事,但看到150人在擁擠的宴會廳裏尖叫、叫喊、大笑、哭泣,最後像兄弟一樣團結,還是很令人吃驚。”美國籃球運動員協但是沒有了開天斧這么個神器會的執行董事米歇爾·羅伯茨說。“我從未見過這樣的場面。這就是民主。真的太棒了。”

                第二天,經過進一步討論,球員同意恢復比賽,因為他們與球隊老板達成了協議:全國各地的體育場都要被用作即將到來的大選的投票站。

                世界各地的企業,特別是那些有公會成員員工的企業,在疫情導致企業虧損時期也不得不處理敏感的勞資問題。

                但與大多數體育聯盟 三名老嫗對視一眼相比,NBA相對順利,因為聯盟一直在與球員之間相互適應。

                “蕭華和羅伯茨的威望很高。”勞工律師喬舒亞·門德爾松說,他也是《薪資上限》一書的作者,書中內容講述了NBA勞資關系歷史,主要介紹1983年引入工資上限。

                賽季暫停,收入停發時,老板原本可以停止支付。但他們沒有這麽做。

                “老板繼續付給球員工資。”門德爾松說。“工會談判做得很好,包括如果出現傷病的責任上限。他們聽取了球員的意見。沒有球員,就沒有比賽。”

                早在封閉球場之前,這種相互理解就發揮過作用。

                在5月底,明尼阿波利斯甚至擁有仙器的警察致黑人喬治·弗洛伊德死亡後,引發的社會示威活動激增,許多球星不確定是否應該復賽。他們 雷霆之力擔心會分散全國關於種族問題的討論。

                其實,球員們也深之復賽對他們來說,意味著機會。

                “我們理解不復賽的經濟後果和財務影響。”邁阿密熱火隊的前鋒,球員工會的第一副主席安德烈·伊戈達拉表鄭云峰交給我示。但是和種族關系這種社會問題的變化比金錢更重要。所以很多你莫非還能阻止我人會說:‘讓我們為更宏大的目標努力,而不僅僅是為了錢。’”

                因此,他們商定,在球衣背面印上“投票”和“說出他們的手掌白光一閃名字”等與黑人人權運動有關的信息。這是蕭華和羅伯茨在談判中頗具經驗的一種妥協。

                羅伯茨說:“我和亞當吵過架。並不是一直都很順利,到最後,我們確實處理得比較成熟。”

                不管NBA在今年的糟糕形勢下多麽成功,但也無法逆轉疫情重創聯盟財務的事實,就像世界各地的許多企業一樣。

                在去年秋天賽季開始時,聯盟曾經預計本賽季收天魁劍入可達100億美元,其中約40%來自所謂的“比賽夜收入”,包括門票、特許經營權、周邊商品等。

                雖然停賽前賽季已經完成了約仙器艾這可不是一堆極品靈器和靈石靈晶就能換到仙器艾這可不是一堆極品靈器和靈石靈晶就能換到80%,但當球迷們無法觀賽時,收入自然就中斷了。

                另一方面,在NBA本土市場,電視轉播也受到了挑戰。

                體育媒體Sports Media Watch的分析師喬恩·“保爾森”·劉易斯稱,迪士尼旗下的ABC電視臺播出了最佳7場冠軍爭奪賽的第一場,收視率僅為4.1,觀看人數741萬,為NBA總決眾人也不知道賽單場比賽最低紀錄。

                劉易斯估計,今年的比賽收視率比去年下降了至少40%。

                在職業體育聯盟中,並不只有NBA收視率下降。劉易斯估計,國家冰球聯盟的斯坦利杯決賽的收視率下降了61%。賽制改革後,美國職棒大聯盟的常規賽觀眾比之前一年少了四分之一。

                時機不佳是NBA收視率下滑的原因之一。

                總決賽完賽通常在6月,而不是10月,因為10月要跟橄欖球和棒球等項目競爭。在9月裏,最誇張的勾魂鈴一天居然有12項頂級體育項目比賽,包括橄欖球聯盟、女子籃球聯盟、美國網球公開賽和大學橄欖球賽等。

                此外,NBA還趕上了全民矚目的選舉季。舉個例子,總決賽第三場比賽那天,媒體都在鋪天蓋地報道總統特朗普的新冠檢測呈陽性結果。

                封閉賽場的結束,意味著新的艱難篇章的開啟。

                球員、球隊老板和聯盟官員都有大堆工作要做。勞資協議集體談判已經在進行中。推遲的NBA選秀定於11月18日舉行。聯盟已經提出了想要於明年1月無聲大吼開始下個賽季的想法,但球迷能否到現場觀賽還不確定。

                未來幾周爭論的焦點可能是如何最好、最公平地分擔聯賽面臨的財務壓力。

                羅伯茨說:“毫無疑問,談判主要圍繞著如何在長期內攤平虧損而展開。”

                對於NBA裏1500人左右的文職人員來說,至少在決賽後迎來了好消息。

                蕭華通過電子郵件宣布,每人可以一次性獲得1000美元獎金,還有連續四個星期五和整個感恩節的假期。

                至於蕭華本人,最後一場比賽後,在其他工作人員紛紛離開封閉賽場之際,他並沒有飛 ﹛回北邊。

                幾天後他告訴《財富》雜誌:“信不信由你,我還在奧蘭多,我妻子和兩個女兒來了南方,我們要去迪士尼樂園玩兩天。就像廣告裏千秋雪口吐鮮血說的:‘冠軍賽後打算幹什麽?去迪士尼樂園玩。’”

                這並不是童話標準結局。畢竟,疫情仍臉色平靜然在肆虐。

                但在這樣兵荒馬亂的一年,還能去迪士尼樂園逛一圈,這已經相當完美了。(財富中文網)

                補充報道:柳仕魯(Andrew Nusca)。

                本文另一版本登載於《財富》雜誌2020年11月刊。

                譯者:馮豐

                審校:夏林

                編輯:徐曉彤

                On the second Sunday in October, an unprecedented 12 months after the National Basketball Association’s 74th season tipped off with preseason games, the league finally crowned a champion—the Los Angeles Lakers. It was a made-for-TV moment: LeBron James captured his fourth title and, more historically, did it with his third team. By leading the Lakers to victory against the feisty Miami Heat—the team with which he won his first two rings—James completed his mission to restore the storied franchise to its past glory. He also solidified his claim as one of the game’s all-time greatest players.

                But the night was about so much more than the triumph by James and his teammates. It also was the capstone to a year of unprecedented tumult that included a financially painful spat with China last fall, the unexpected death of former commissioner David Stern on New Year’s Day, and the tragic demise weeks later of retired Laker superstar Kobe Bryant in a helicopter crash. And that was all before the NBA suspended its season on March 11 after a Utah Jazz player tested positive for COVID-19—a watershed moment in the early days of the pandemic that reinforced the seriousness of the health crisis at hand.

                That James was able to hoist the Larry O’Brien trophy at all is a testament to how the NBA rebounded in the weeks and months after the shutdown. By now the outline of the story is well known. Shuttered for much of the spring and early summer, the NBA crafted a plan for a Disney-hosted bubble in Orlando and worked out an arrangement with the players to restart play with 22 of the league’s 30 teams. (The bubble excluded teams without a realistic shot at the playoffs to reduce headcount.) It then proceeded to stage 172 games over two-plus months without a single player, league official, or team staffer testing positive for the novel coronavirus.

                The NBA’s fractured season came at a tremendous cost. Bubble expenses alone totaled about $180 million, and the league undershot its preseason revenue projections by as much as $1.5 billion because of the pandemic. Yet the overall success of the NBA in the face of adversity is something many other businesses can only dream of. The bubble not only salvaged what could have been a devastating year financially, but it also put a global spotlight on the league’s product. And it further boosted the reputation of NBA commissioner Adam Silver, considered by many to be the best in professional sports.

                Restarting a season after stopping it cold was an operational feat of epic proportions. And pulling it off with a minimum of dissent and drama represents a textbook case of labor relations done right—a nontrivial achievement given the amount of money and the size of the egos involved. The feat is all the more remarkable given that it came about during a period of generational social justice upheaval that profoundly affected the NBA’s players, from superstars to scrubs, and that at more than one point threatened to torpedo the season.

                Those with the most on the line seem to appreciate the victory of a shortened but healthy season. “I think the league did a masterful job of doing the best it could to keep revenue coming in for both the teams and the players,” says Los Angeles Clippers owner Steve Ballmer, the former Microsoft CEO and a member of the NBA’s board of governors, which met weekly throughout the crisis. “Juggling those interests and being willing to put in some significant costs with some significant benefit, I just think the league was phenomenal.”

                The NBA wasn’t the only sports league to snatch victory from the jaws of a pandemic. The WNBA pulled off a similar bubble experience in Bradenton, Fla., on the state’s west coast. NHL teams finished the season shuttling between two Canadian cities, Toronto and Edmonton. And even Major League Baseball, though hampered by multiple outbreaks of the virus over the course of a truncated schedule, has managed to make it deep into its playoffs with televised games in stadiums with cardboard cutouts for fans.

                But by mastering the bubble the way it did, the NBA showed once again why it is viewed as one of the world’s best-managed sports leagues. “I don’t think there’s a brand in America that is more consistent than the NBA,” says David Carter, a sports business professor at USC’s Marshall School of Business, strategic marketing consultant, and longtime observer of the league. “To me, a brand is a promise, and you know what you’re going to get out of the NBA, just as you know what you’re going to get out of Tiffany and Harley-Davidson.”

                Compared with other professional leagues, says Carter, the NBA “just seemed to be more uniform, more in lockstep for how they handled major issues, whether it’s COVID, or social justice, or putting together a bubble that works.” And understanding why reveals valuable lessons for businesses and leaders well beyond the realm of sports.

                *****

                Chris Paul, the star guard for the Oklahoma City Thunder and the president of the National Basketball Players Association, knows firsthand what, and who, it took to make the bubble work. In fact, when he arrived in Orlando he says he sought out Kelly Flatow, executive vice president for events for the NBA. “I just wanted to give her the biggest hug,” says Paul. “Because we had been on all these Zooms together where we’d been talking about this, talking about that, talking about logistics.”

                The logistics were like nothing Flatow, a 14-year veteran of the NBA, had ever seen. Her group puts on more than 200 events a year, from the All-Star weekend to games outside the U.S. Planning for these events begins years in advance, though, and they never involve more than two teams. “This was having 22 teams and roughly 350 players, all coming together in one environment,” she says. “There was no playbook or blueprint for this.”

                Flatow’s team spent the late spring and early summer on Zoom calls and messaging each other on Slack from their respective homes near New York City. After they got to the Disney World ESPN World Wide Sports Complex, home base to the bubble, a core group of 15 met daily at 8 a.m. to discuss the tasks of the day—whether it was building seven practice facilities, including one that went up in a Disney World hotel ballroom, or erecting a broadcast center for games without fans. Every Sunday Flatow hosted an all-hands meeting for the cross-functional staff of nearly 150 that spanned communications and medical to IT and security.

                By the time games were in full swing, it took an even larger number, a proverbial 6,500-person village, to service the entire community in the bubble in Orlando. “I analogize it a bit to when you go to a movie and you see the actors on the screen and then the credits start rolling at the end, and they keep rolling and they keep rolling,” Adam Silver, the NBA commissioner, said at a press conference before the finals series began. (Silver gamely tried to persuade people to use the word “campus” rather than “bubble.” Everyone called it a bubble.) He singled out Flatow for praise, calling her “in essence the concierge” for the assembled crew.

                She did “everything from making sure the buses run on time to [assisting] those of you in this room who requested feather pillows. I know who you are. I know all the personal requests that everyone here has made.”

                More seriously, the NBA also had to invent health protocols from scratch. A former corporate lawyer named David Weiss, the NBA’s senior vice president for player matters, quickly learned enough about infectious diseases and testing to work with a team of doctors to design the elaborate health rules that governed the bubble. Weiss also regularly briefed the owners. “It was absolutely stunning how fast some of the league staff came up to speed on the health issues,” says Ballmer.

                The league established a daily testing regimen for everyone who stayed on the campus at an expense of more than $100 per test. Everyone not playing, coaching, or officiating games were required to wear masks in the presence of others, particularly because support staff left the bubble after their shifts.

                But while league officials were able to stay ahead of the virus, there were other challenges they didn’t see coming.

                *****

                On Aug. 26, in the middle of the playoffs, the Milwaukee Bucks chose not to come out of their locker room for their Game 5 playoff matchup with the Orlando Magic. They made the decision not to play in order to protest the shooting of a Black man named Jacob Blake by a police officer in Kenosha, Wis. What began as a one-game walkout—some called it a boycott, while Silver let it be known he preferred “work stoppage”—quickly cascaded into a full cessation of play in the NBA as well as other sports leagues. The next day the remaining players and coaches in Orlando gathered to decide if they would return to the court. The season—and the revenue all parties would reap from completing the playoffs—hung in the balance.

                Before the meeting, Paul, the players’ union president, spoke with Silver. The directness of the exchange is illustrative of the trust that the two sides have in each other. “I just said, ‘I’ll let you know,’?” says Paul. “I know it sounds simple. But that’s real, you know? At the end of the day, obviously we’re partners and it’s all about the game. But I’m a player. I know how players feel. And this was bigger than the game.”

                The meeting itself was an extraordinary moment of mass catharsis for the athletes. “It was not fun, but it was really astonishing to see 150 men spend hours in this crowded banquet hall screaming, yelling, laughing, crying, but ultimately coming together as brothers,” says Michele Roberts, executive director of the National Basketball Players Association. “I’ve never seen anything like it. That’s what democracy looks like. And it was quite stunning.”

                After more discussion the next day, the players agreed to go back to work, encouraged by an agreement with team owners that stadiums across the country would be used as polling stations for the upcoming election.

                Businesses everywhere, especially those with unionized workforces, have had to deal with sensitive labor-relations issues during this time of pandemic-induced business shortfalls. But more than most leagues, the NBA came into its difficult year enjoying a history of mutual accommodation with its players. “Silver and Roberts have a ton of credibility,” says Joshua Mendelsohn, a labor lawyer and author of The Cap, a new history of labor relations at the NBA centered on the introduction of a salary cap in 1983. When the season was suspended and revenue stopped flowing, the owners could have ceased paying salaries. They didn’t. “The owners continued to pay the players,” says Mendelsohn. “The union did a good job of negotiating, including upping the liability if someone got sick. They listened to the players. Without the players, there is no game.”

                That mutual understanding paid dividends before play even began in the bubble. After the killing of George Floyd by police officers in Minneapolis in late May, and the surge in social justice demonstrations that it sparked, many of the league’s stars were unsure they should resume the season. They feared distracting from the national conversation about race.

                But the players also recognized the platform they would have by returning. “We understood the economic ramifications and the financials of not returning,” says Andre Iguodala, the Miami Heat forward and first vice president of the players’ union. “But the political landscape of the country and what was happening with race relations made it bigger than money. And I think that’s what made it special for a lot of us to say, ‘Let’s do it for a bigger reason than just us going out and getting a check.’?”

                So they negotiated to have certain approved messages—like “Vote” and “Say Their Names”—associated with the Black Lives Matter movement printed on the backs of their jerseys. It’s the kind of compromise that Silver and Roberts are experienced at negotiating. “I have had fights with Adam. It’s not hunky-dory all the time,” says Roberts. “But at the end of the day, we do behave like adults.”

                *****

                No matter how successful the NBA was in making the best of a bad situation this year, the fact remains that the pandemic slammed the league’s finances in the same manner it has hurt so many businesses around the world. The league entered last fall expecting to collect $10 billion for the season, with about 40% of that figure coming from so-called game-night revenue: tickets, concessions, merchandise, and the like. Though the league did complete about 80% of its season before it was suspended, this revenue stream went away the moment fans stopped being able to attend games.

                Television was challenged in the NBA’s home market, too, for very different reasons. The first game of the best-of-seven championship series broadcast on Disney-owned ABC, garnered the smallest television audience ever recorded for a single game in the NBA Finals—a 4.1 rating with 7.41 million viewers, according to analyst Jon “Paulsen” Lewis of Sports Media Watch. Lewis estimates that viewership for this year’s series was down by at least 40% from last year.

                The NBA is hardly alone among professional sports leagues in seeing viewership declines. Viewership for the NHL’s Stanley Cup Final was down 61%, Lewis estimates. And the reworked MLB regular season lost a quarter of its audience from the year before.

                Unfortunate timing is partly to blame for the NBA’s ratings slide. The finals usually conclude in June rather than October, when it is competing with football and baseball, among other sports. One extraordinary day in September featured events from 12 top sports, including Major League Soccer, the WNBA, tennis’s U.S. Open, and college football. The NBA even had to contend with a crazy election season. Game 3 of the finals competed, for example, with wall-to-wall coverage of President Trump’s surprise COVID-19 diagnosis.

                *****

                The end of the bubble means the beginning of a new, difficult chapter. There’s plenty of work ahead—for the players, the owners, and league officials. Negotiations to revisit the collective bargaining agreement already are underway. The delayed NBA draft is slated for Nov. 18. And the league has floated the idea of beginning the next season in January, with the presence of fans uncertain. Indeed the biggest debate in the weeks ahead will likely be about the best and fairest way to share the financial hit the league is facing. Says Roberts: “It’s no secret the conversation will entail how to spread the loss over a longer period.”

                The NBA’s 1,500 or so league-office employees, at least, got some post-finals good news. Silver told them by email that each would receive a one-time $1,000 bonus as well as four consecutive Fridays and all of Thanksgiving week off.

                As for the commissioner himself, he didn’t fly north when most of the rest of the league staff fled the bubble following the last game. “Believe it or not, I’m still in Orlando,” he told Fortune a couple of days later. “My wife and our two daughters came down, and we’re going to Disney World for two days. It’s like that commercial: ‘What are you going to do after the championship? We’re going to Disney World.’?”

                It’s not entirely a fairy tale ending. The pandemic is still raging, after all. But it’s about as close as anyone’s going to get to one in a year like this.?

                Additional reporting by Andrew Nusca.

                A version of this article appears in the November 2020 issue of Fortune.

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